Solidity

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Solidity is a contract-oriented, high-level language for implementing smart contracts. It was influenced by C++, Python and JavaScript and is designed to target the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).

Solidity is statically typed, supports inheritance, libraries and complex user-defined types among other features.

As you will see, it is possible to create contracts for voting, crowdfunding, blind auctions, multi-signature wallets and more.

Note

The best way to try out Solidity right now is using Remix (it can take a while to load, please be patient). Remix is a web browser based IDE that allows you to write Solidity smart contracts, then deploy and run the smart contracts.

Warning

Since software is written by humans, it can have bugs. Thus, also smart contracts should be created following well-known best-practices in software development. This includes code review, testing, audits and correctness proofs. Also note that users are sometimes more confident in code than its authors. Finally, blockchains have their own things to watch out for, so please take a look at the section Security Considerations.

Translations

This documentation is translated into several languages by community volunteers, but the English version stands as a reference.

Available Solidity Integrations

  • Remix
    Browser-based IDE with integrated compiler and Solidity runtime environment without server-side components.
  • IntelliJ IDEA plugin
    Solidity plugin for IntelliJ IDEA (and all other JetBrains IDEs)
  • Visual Studio Extension
    Solidity plugin for Microsoft Visual Studio that includes the Solidity compiler.
  • Package for SublimeText — Solidity language syntax
    Solidity syntax highlighting for SublimeText editor.
  • Etheratom
    Plugin for the Atom editor that features syntax highlighting, compilation and a runtime environment (Backend node & VM compatible).
  • Atom Solidity Linter
    Plugin for the Atom editor that provides Solidity linting.
  • Atom Solium Linter
    Configurable Solidty linter for Atom using Solium as a base.
  • Solium
    Linter to identify and fix style and security issues in Solidity.
  • Solhint
    Solidity linter that provides security, style guide and best practice rules for smart contract validation.
  • Visual Studio Code extension
    Solidity plugin for Microsoft Visual Studio Code that includes syntax highlighting and the Solidity compiler.
  • Emacs Solidity
    Plugin for the Emacs editor providing syntax highlighting and compilation error reporting.
  • Vim Solidity
    Plugin for the Vim editor providing syntax highlighting.
  • Vim Syntastic
    Plugin for the Vim editor providing compile checking.

Discontinued:

  • Mix IDE
    Qt based IDE for designing, debugging and testing solidity smart contracts.
  • Ethereum Studio
    Specialized web IDE that also provides shell access to a complete Ethereum environment.

Solidity Tools

  • Dapp
    Build tool, package manager, and deployment assistant for Solidity.
  • Solidity REPL
    Try Solidity instantly with a command-line Solidity console.
  • solgraph
    Visualize Solidity control flow and highlight potential security vulnerabilities.
  • Doxity
    Documentation Generator for Solidity.
  • evmdis
    EVM Disassembler that performs static analysis on the bytecode to provide a higher level of abstraction than raw EVM operations.

Note

Information like variable names, comments, and source code formatting is lost in the compilation process and it is not possible to completely recover the original source code. Decompiling smart contracts to view the original source code might not be possible, or the end result that useful.

Third-Party Solidity Parsers and Grammars

Language Documentation

On the next pages, we will first see a simple smart contract written in Solidity followed by the basics about blockchains and the Ethereum Virtual Machine.

The next section will explain several features of Solidity by giving useful example contracts Remember that you can always try out the contracts in your browser!

The last and most extensive section will cover all aspects of Solidity in depth.

If you still have questions, you can try searching or asking on the Ethereum Stackexchange site, or come to our gitter channel. Ideas for improving Solidity or this documentation are always welcome!

Contents

Keyword Index, Search Page